4.1 Ionic bonding
4.1.1: Describe the ionic bond as the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
4.1.2: Describe how ions can be formed as a result of ionic transfer.
4.1.3:Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in groups 1,2,3 lose electrons.
4.1.4: Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in groups 5,6, and 7 gain electrons.
4.1.5: State that transition elements can form more than one ion.
4.1.6: Predict whether a compound of two elements would be ionic from the position of the elements in the periodic table or negativity values.
4.1.7: State the formula of common polyatomic ions formed by non-metals in periods 2 and 3.
4.1.8: Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds.
4.2 Covalent bonding
4.2.1: Describe the covalent bond as the electrostatic attraction between a pair of electrons and positively charged nuclei.
4.2.2: Describe how the covalent bond is formed as a result of electron sharing.
4.2.3: Deduce the Lewis (electron dot) structures of molecules and ions for up to four pairs of electrons on each atom.
4.2.4: State and explain the relationship between the number of bonds, bond length, and bond strength.
4.2.5: Predict whether a compound of two elements would be covalent from the position of the elements in the periodic table or from their electronegativity values.
4.2.6: Predict the relative polarity of bonds from electronegativity values.
4.2.7: Predict the shape and bond angles for species with four, three and two negative charge centres on the central atom using the valence shell pair repulsion theory (VESPR).
4.2.8: predict whether or not a molecule is polar from its molecular shape and bond polarities.
4.2.9: Describe and compare the structure and bonding in the three allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, fullerene).
4.2.10: Describe the structure of and bonding in silicon and silicon dioxide.
4.3 Intermolecular forces
4.3.1: Describe the types of intermolecular forces and explain how they arise from the structural features of molecules.
4.3.2: Describe and explain how intermolecular forces affect the boiling points of substances.
4.4 Metallic bonding
4.4.1: Describe the metallic bond as the electrostatic attraction between a lattice of positive ions and delocalized ions.
4.4.2: Explain the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals.
4.5 Physical properties
4.5.1: Compare and explain the properties of substances resulting from different types of bonding.